Representation Under the Old Constitution

 

 

 

 

 Inadequate. Shallow. Narrow

 

Contents
Introduction

Representation at Independence

 

At the House of Representatives

All constituencies were to have nearly as equal populations as possible. 117 Constituencies were created.

At the Senate

Lancaster House negotiations provided for a bicameral Parliament, with a Senate of 41 Senators representing Districts and Nairobi.

At the Regional Assemblies

Seven Regional Assemblies were created influenced in large part, by a colonial classification based on language groups. These were later known as Provinces.

Representation in 1966

Constituencies Created for Senators

Upon the scrapping of the Senate, 41 additional Constituencies were created for the Senators, who moved to the National Assembly (previously known as the House of Representatives).

Representation in 1967 - 2013

At the National Assembly

Various amendments to the Constitution led to the delineation of additional Constituencies by the Electoral Commission of Kenya to the current 210 Constituencies.

 

 Introduction

 

In 1963 Kenya gained its independent from British rule. Its Constitution was based on what is known as the British Westminster Constitution whose basic format of representation was premised on geographical boundaries.

"The delimitation of boundaries of constituencies and wards is not a new phenomenon in the Kenyan history. Delimitation of boundaries was started by colonial authorities in 1962 when the Royal Commission was created to go round the country and carry out an inquiry into electoral and administrative boundaries. The Royal Commission held consultations with leaders at different levels including influential tribal leaders and chiefs." (IEBC, 2012).

 

 


 

 

Representation at the House of Representatives

 

The country’s Constitution provided for the delimitation of constituencies so as to facilitate the conduct of elections in newly-independent Kenya. Chapter IV -  Parliament, Part 1 - Composition of Parliament, excerpts:

49. (1) For the purpose of elections of Elected Members of the House of Representatives, Kenya shall ........ be divided into such number of constituencies (not being more than 130 or less than 110) .......

At that time, the determination of electoral units in Kenya started with creation of 117 Constituencies based on a clearly established principle that all constituencies contain as nearly as possible an equal number of inhabitants (leading to some really expansive ones). It also provided that no constituency could cut across any two of the 7 administrative Regions to which Kenya was divided:

(2) ........ no constituency shall form part of more than one Region or of both the Nairobi Area and a Region.
(3) All constituencies shall contain as nearly equal numbers of inhabitants as appears to the Commission to be reasonable and practicable, but the Commission may depart from this principal to such extent as it considers expedient in order to take account of: (a) the density of population and in particular, the need to ensure adequate representation of urban and sparsely-populated rural areas; (b) means of communication; (c) geographical features; (d) community of interest; and (e) boundaries of existing administrative areas.

The 7 administrative Regions, which later came to be known as Provinces, were Western, Nyanza, Rift-Valley, Eastern, North-Eastern, Central, and Coast. The constitution at independence provided for 41 Districts which formed the basis of geographic representation at the Senate. These were based on ethnic considerations as opposed to majority rule tenets. "In 1962, immediately preceding independence, the Regional Boundaries Commission divided Kenya on the basis of either ethnic homogeneity, i.e. one tribe per district, or compatibility, i.e. more than one tribe per district or province where they were happy to coexist. The Commission recommended the eight provinces and 41 districts which were the basis for Kenya's administration in the 1992 elections" (Fox, 1996).

Indeed, the Commissioners' report did not conceal its rational of delimitation, which clearly went against Article 49. (3) of the 1962 Constitution, as shown above: "In certain cases strong tribal affinities or a close community of interest have induced us to delimit constituencies well below what might be considered the mean figure for a constituency, having regard to the total population of the country." (Maxon, 2009).

At that time, Parliament (then known as the National Assembly), was made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Excerpts:

34. (2) The National Assembly shall comprise 2 Houses, that is to say, a Senate and a House of Representatives.

The House of Representatives had 117 directly elected members known as MPs representing the 117 geographic constituencies (as delineated by the Electoral Commission) and a further 12 nominated members. Excerpts from Article 39 of the 1963 Constitution:

39. (1) The number of Specially Elected Members of the House of Representative shall be the number which results from dividing the number of seats of Elected Members of that House by ten or, if that result is not a whole number, the whole number next greater than the result. 

These Specially Elected Members were elected by the Elected Members of the House of Representatives:

(2) The Specially Elected Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected by the Elected Members of that House in accordance with the provisions of Schedule 6 of this Constitution.

For purposes of clarity, it is important at this juncture, to make mention of the fact that local units of representation existed through which the people of Kenya elected Members of the Wards to represent them at the local Councils. It is also at the Ward level of representation that citizens from minority language groups had the best chances for representation. These local councils were semi-autonomous and largely concerned themselves with service provision.

The next eight tables give the breakdown of the 117 Constituencies by Region and District for a better perspective.

 
Table 1.1 Central Region

 

Constituency
District
Party

Githunguri

Kiambu

KANU

Kiambaa

Kiambu

KANU

Kikuyu

Kiambu

KANU

Limuru

Kiambu

KANU

Thika-Gatundu

Kiambu

KANU

Gichugu

Kirinyaga

KANU

Ndia

Kirinyaga

KANU

Kandara

Murang'a

KANU

Kangema

Murang'a

KANU

Kigumo

Murang'a

KANU

Kiharu

Murang'a

KANU

Aberdares

Nyandarua

KANU

Mathira

Nyeri

KANU

Nyeri

Nyeri

KANU

Othaya-South Tetu

Nyeri

KANU

Total: 15

Total: 5

KANU:15 KADU: 0

 

Table 1.2 Coast Region

 

 Constituency
District
 Party

Kilifi North

Kilifi

KADU

Kilifi South

Kilifi

KADU

Malindi

Kilifi

KADU

Kwale East

Kwale

KADU

Kwale West

Kwale

KADU

Mombasa Island North

Mombasa

KADU

Mombasa Island South

Mombasa

KADU

Mombasa Mainland

Mombasa

KADU

Lamu

Lamu

KANU

Taveta Voi

Taita

KANU

Wundanyi

Taita

KANU

Tana River

Tana River

KADU

 Total: 12  Total: 6
KANU: 3 KADU: 9

 

Table 1.3 Eastern Region

 

Constituency
District
Party

Embu North

Embu

KANU

Embu South

Embu

KANU

Isiolo

Isiolo

KANU

Kitui Central

Kitui

KANU

Kitui East

Kitui

KANU

Kitui North

Kitui

KANU

Kitui South

Kitui

KANU

Machakos Central

Machakos

KANU

Machakos East

Machakos

KANU

Machakos North

Machakos

KANU

Machakos South

Machakos

KANU

Machakos West

Machakos

KANU

Yatta

Machakos

KANU

Marsabit-Moyale

Marsabit

KANU

Rendille

Marsabit

KANU

Meru Central

Meru

KANU

Meru South

Meru

KANU

Meru West

Meru

KANU

Nyambene South

Meru

KANU

Nyambene North

Meru

KANU

Tharaka

Meru

KANU

Total: 21

Total: 6

KANU: 21 KADU: 0

 

Table 1.4 Nairobi

 

Constituency
District
Party

Doonholm

Nairobi

KANU

Nairobi Central

Nairobi

KANU

Nairobi East

Nairobi

KANU

Nairobi North-West

Nairobi

KANU

Nairobi North-East

Nairobi

KANU

Nairobi South

Nairobi

KANU

Nairobi West

Nairobi

KANU

Total: 7

Total: 1

KANU: 7 KADU: 0

 

Table 1.5 North-Eastern Region

 

Constituency
District
Party

Garissa North

Garissa

KANU

Garissa South

Garissa

KANU

Mandera

Mandera

KANU

Wajir North

Wajir

KANU

Wajir South

Wajir

KANU

Total: 5

Total: 3

KANU: 5 KADU: 0

 

Table 1.6 Nyanza Region

 

Constituency
District
Party

Alego

Central Nyanza

KANU

Bondo

Central Nyanza

KANU

Gem

Central Nyanza

KANU

Kisumu Rural

Central Nyanza

KANU

Kisumu Town

Central Nyanza

KANU

Nyando

Central Nyanza

KANU

Ugenya

Central Nyanza

KANU

Winam

Central Nyanza

KANU

Kitutu East

Kisii

KANU

Kitutu West

Kisii

KANU

Kuria

Kisii

KANU

Majoge-Bassi

Kisii

KANU

North Mugirango

Kisii

KANU

Nyaribari

Kisii

KANU

Wanjare-South Mugirango

Kisii

KANU

Homa Bay

South Nyanza

KANU

Karachuonyo

South Nyanza

KANU

Kasipul-Kabondo

South Nyanza

KANU

Migori

South Nyanza

KANU

Lambwe

South Nyanza

KANU

Total: 20

Total: 3

KANU: 20 KADU: 0

 

Table 1.7 Rift-Valley Region

 

Constituency
District
Party

Baringo East

Baringo

KADU

Baringo North

Baringo

KADU

Baringo South

Baringo

KADU

Korossi

Baringo

KADU

Marakwet

Elgeyo Marakwet

KADU

Elgeyo

Elgeyo Marakwet

KANU

Kajiado

Kajiado

KADU

Belgut

Kericho

KADU

Bomet

Kericho

KADU

Buret

Kericho

KANU

Kericho East

Kericho

KANU

Laikipia-Nanyuki

Laikipia

KANU

Nakuru East

Nakuru

KANU

Nakuru Town

Nakuru

KANU

Nakuru West

Nakuru

KANU

Nandi South

Nandi

KADU

Narok East

Nandi

KADU

Nandi North

Nandi

KANU

Narok West

Narok

KANU

Trans Nzoia

Trans Nzoia

KADU

Turkana North

Turkana

KANU

Turkana South

Turkana

KANU

Uasin Gishu

Uasin Gishu

KADU

West Pokot

West Pokot

KANU

Total: 24

Total: 12

KANU: 12 KADU: 12

 

Table 1.8 Western Region

 

Constituency
District
Party

Elgon East

Bungoma

KANU

Elgon-Central

Bungoma

KANU

Mount Elgon

Bungoma

KANU

Elgon South-West

Busia

KANU

Elgon West

Busia

KANU

Ruwamba

Busia

KANU

Butere

Kakamega

KADU

Ikolomani

Kakamega

KADU

Lurambi

Kakamega

KADU

Emukhaya

Kakamega

KANU

Hamisi

Kakamega

KANU

Mumias

Kakamega

KANU

Vihiga

Kakamega

KANU

Total: 13

Total: 3

KANU: 10 KADU: 3

 

The MPs were then known as Constituency Members and met as the House of Representatives. All had equal weight of vote. Looking back, the 117 constituencies of the 41 Districts made for uneven representation. For example, the vast but sparsley populated Kajiado Constituency had one representative as did Lamu with a much smaller area and population. The House of Representatives had 12 Nominated Members of which only one came from the opposition KADU. 

 
 

 

 

Representation at the Senate JH..

 

The other House of Parliament was the Senate with 41 directly elected Senators, each representing one of the 40 Districts and Nairobi. Excerpts from the 1963 Constitution: 

35. The Senate shall consist of 41 Senators, elected in accordance with the provisions of section 36 of this Constitution.

36. (1) Kenya shall be divided into 40 Districts and the Nairobi Area; and each District and the Nairobi Area shall elect one Senator ........ 

These 40 Districts and Nairobi are today, what are known as Counties plus the following six Districts which were hived off the 40 at various times as shown on the table below:

 

Table 1.9 The 6 Districts Later Hived-off from the 40 Districts of Independence

 

District
Parent District
Year
Bomet Kericho  
Makueni Machakos  
Migori Homa Bay  
Nyamira Kisii  
Tharaka-Nithi Meru  
Vihiga Kakamega  

 

The Senate's 41 members, were expected to represent the interests of smaller groups and minorities who felt excluded in the then Kikuyu and Luo dominated political party KANU. These smaller groupings were behind the semi-autonomous status anchored in the constitution and enjoyed by Regions and the Regional Assemblies - an arrangement that was strongly fronted by KADU and which formed an important part of the political negotiations at the Lancaster House Conferences. 

"The idea of a second chamber for Kenya was originally proposed by the Kenya African Democratic Union (hereafter called KADU) as part of its plan to provide protection for the smaller tribes, which that party represented, against the danger of domination by the larger and more advanced Kikuyu and Luo groups, which supported the Kenya African National Union (hereafter called KANU). KADU desired a federal system in which considerable power would be allocated to regional governments. An upper house was considered necessary to safeguard the autonomy of the regions and to assure sufficient representation of minority interests at the center, for it was recognized that a unicameral legislature elected on the basis of "oneman, one-vote" might very well be completely controlled by KANU which favored a greater centralization of power. Mr. Ronald Ngala, leader of KADU, said upon his arrival in London for the 1962 constitutional conference, "We believe that a two-Chamber Parliament with a Senate especially charged with preserving the rights of the regions is the only way to ensure the continuing liberty of the individual." (Proctor, 1965).

These Senators thus, in one sense represented geographical interests while in another sense represented group interests. They did not have among them any specially nominated members to represent any other special groupings (or "virtual" constituencies) such as women, etc.

 

 


 

Representation at the Regional Assemblies

 

At that time, each of the Regions had a semi-autonomous Regional government and Assembly -  a form of devolution that granted the people a limited level of self rule. Excerpts from Chapter 6 - Regions, Part 3 - Legislative powers of Regional Assemblies:

102. ........ a Regional Assembly shall have power to make laws for the peace, order and good government of the Region or of any part thereof ........

And from Part 1 - Regions - of the same Chapter:

91. Kenya shall be divided into the Nairobi Area and the following Regions ........: (a) the Coast Region; (b) the Eastern Region; (c) the Central Region; (d) the Rift Valley Region; (e) the Nyanza Region; (f) the Western Region; and (g) the North-Eastern Region.

92. There shall be for each Region a Regional Assembly consisting of Elected Members and Specially Elected Members.

The Elected members of the regional assemblies were elected from every constituency of every District within the Region, while the Specially Elected members (elected by the Elected members) constituted one-eighth of the total membership of the assembly:

93. (3) Each constituency shall elect one Elected Member to the Regional Assembly ........

94. (1) The number of Specially Elected Members of a Regional Assembly shall be the number which results from dividing the number of seats of Elected Members of that Regional Assembly by eight ........

Representation was largely based on the geography of the constituencies that made up a District within a Region; a provision that made for an uneven form of representation by today's standards since Districts with more constituencies ended up with higher levels of representation (and clout) at the Assemblies.

At that time, a Region could determine the levels of representation at its local Assembly:

104. A law made by a Regional Assembly may prescribe the number of Elected Members of that Regional Assembly and may specify the boundaries of the constituencies into which the Districts within the Region are divided ........ Provided that, subject to provisions of section 242 of this Constitution: (b) the number of members of a Regional Assembly and the number of constituencies into which each District is divided shall always be such that all Districts within the Region return the same number of members to the Regional Assembly; ........

Not much was provided in the composition of the executive government of a Region with respect to reflecting the diversity of that Region. As a result, minorities and the marginalised had little representation and say in the affairs of the regional governments including local authorities of the time. Indeed, by failing to provision for the fair and equitable representation of all, the 1963 Constitution set the foundation for the marginalisation and exclusion of many groups for the next several decades after independence.


 


 

 

Constituencies Created for Former Senators

 

The Constitutional amendments of 1964 and 1966 progressively led to the weakening and eventual abolition of the seven regional assemblies and the 41-Member Senate. The House of Representatives was renamed the National Assembly with an expanded 158 Parliamentary Constituencies consisting of the old 117 (a good number of which were given new names) and an additional 41 newly- created Constituencies for the Senators.

"This act (the Constitution of Kenya (Amendment) (No 4) Act of 1996) abolished the Kenya Senate with effect from 3rd January 1967. It created 41constituencies, one in every administrative district, which were allocated to the 41 Senators. This increased the number of parliamentary seats from 117 to 158. ....... " (Kihoro, 2007).

 

Constituencies Created for the Senators

*(includes an extra 6 constituencies - no reliable source yet to confirm where the 6 were hived off from)

 

Table 2.1 Central Region

 

Constituency
District

Gatundu*

Kiambu

Lari

Kiambu

Juja

Kiambu

Kirinyaga South

Kirinyaga

Kirinyaga West

Kirinyaga

Kirinyaga East

Kirinyaga

Makuyu

Murang'a

Nyandarua North

Nyandarua

Othaya

Nyeri

Total: 9

Total: 1

 

 

Table 2.2 Coast Region

 

Constituency
District

Malindi South

Kilifi

Kwale North

Kwale

Lamu West

Lamu

Lamu East

Lamu

Mombasa Central

Mombasa

Voi

Taita

Tana North

Tana River

Total: 7

Total: 6

 

 

Table 2.3 Eastern Region

 

Constituency
District

Embu East

Embu

Isiolo South

Isiolo

Kitui West

Kitui

Iveti North

Machakos

Iveti South

Machakos

Marsabit North

Marsabit

Total: 6

Total: 5

 

 

Table 2.4 Nairobi Region

 

Constituency
District

Dagoretti

Nairobi

Total: 1

Total: 1

 

 

Table 2.5 North-Eastern Region

 

Constituency
District

Garissa Central

Garissa

Mandera West

Mandera

Wajir West

Wajir

Total: 3

Total: 3

 
 
Table 2.6 Nyanza Region

 

Constituency
District

Nyakach

Central Nyanza

Borabu-North Mugirango

Kisii

West Mugirango

Kisii

Ndhiwa

South Nyanza

Total: 4

Total: 3

 

 

Table 2.7 Rift Valley Region

 

Constituency
District

Baringo Central

Baringo

Kerio South

Elgeyo Marakwet

Kerio North

Elgeyo Marakwet

Kajiado South

Kajiado

Chepalungu

Kericho

Laikipia West*

Laikipia

Nakuru North

Nakuru

Tinderet

Nandi

Narok North

Narok

Samburu West

Samburu

Samburu East

Samburu

Kitale West

Trans Nzoia

Eldoret North

Uasin Gishu

Pokot East*

West Pokot

Total: 14

Total: 12

 

 

Table 2.8 Western Region

 

Constituency
District

Busia North

Busia

Lurambi North*

Kakamega

Lurambi South

Kakamega

Total: 3

Total: 2

 

Although the Senate ceased to exist from early 1967, political representation by way of the functions and office of the Senators was expected to continue within the newly expanded National Assembly in order that the interests of the minorities (which the former Senators represented,) would not suffer. The question to ask then is, were the former Senators more active (singly and collectively) participants and champions of regional interests in the new Assembly? If they were and sought to use their new (and certainly elevated) status, then it is safe to say that the National Assembly of 1967-1969 was indeed, among its ranks, composed of an effective representation of minorities. Representation remained largely geographical however.

. It may be of interest to note that by election time in December of 1969 only KANU candidates could take part in the elections as the government had earlier in August banned the opposition Kenya People's Union, KPU. The President then nominated 12 members to the National Assembly after the elections as the law allowed him. Although generally representing the face of Kenya's former 7 regions, it is unclear what express mandate or constituent group the 12 represented. However among them was the first woman Nominated MP Mrs J Gecaga. Hence we can say that political representation in Kenya continued to exist for single member geographical areas with little or no representation for special, minority or other constituent groups.

 

 


 

Representation Between 1967 and 2012

 

Constituencies created for the 1987 Elections

 

The number of constituencies remained at 158 up until 1986. Thus no additional units of representation were created for the 1969, 1974, 1979, and 1983 General Elections despite growing populations. Parliament ammended the Constitution via the Constitution of Kenya (Amendment) Act No 14 of 1986 that provided for a minimum of 168 and a maximum of 188 constituencies. Excerpts:

Subsequently the then elections body - the Electoral Commission of Kenya, ECK, carried out a delimitation of constituency boundaries to provide for an additional 30 Constituencies. Tables 3.1 - 3.8 below provide a breakdown of the new boundaries clustered under the eight Provincial Administrative units for purposes of perspective and context. During this period the number of administrative units known as Districts including Nairobi, remained at 41.

 

Table 3.1 Central Province

 

Constituency
District
Constituency
District
Gatundu Kiambu Kieni Nyeri
Githunguri Kiambu Mathira Nyeri
Juja Kiambu Mukurweini Nyeri
Kiambaa Kiambu Nyeri Town Nyeri
Kikuyu Kiambu Othaya Nyeri
Lari Kiambu Tetu Nyeri
Limuru Kiambu Gichugu Kirinyaga
Gatanga Murang'a Mwea Kirinyaga
Kandara Murang'a Ndia Kirinyaga
Kangema Murang'a Kinangop Nyandarua
Kigumo Murang'a Kipipiri Nyandarua
Kiharu Murang'a Ndaragwa Nyandarua
Makuyu Murang'a    

 Totals: 25 Constituencies, 5 Districts

 

Table 3.2 Coast Province

 

Constituency
District
Constituency
District
Bahari Kilifi Changamwe Mombasa
Ganze Kilifi Kisauni Mombasa
Kaloleni Kilifi Likoni Mombasa
Magarini Kilifi Mvita Mombasa
Malindi Kilifi Mwatate Taita/Tavetta
Kinango Kwale Taveta Taita/Tavetta
Matuga Kwale Voi Taita/Tavetta
Msambweni Kwale Wundanyi Taita/Tavetta
Lamu East Lamu Galole Tana-River
Lamu West Lamu Garsen Tana-River

 Totals: 20 Constituencies, 6 Districts

 

Table 3.3 Eastern Province

 

Constituency
District
Constituency
District
Kangundo Machakos Central Imenti Meru
Kathiani Machakos Igembe Meru
Machakos Town Machakos North Imenti Meru
Masinga Machakos Ntonyiri Meru
Mbooni Machakos South Imenti Meru
Mwala Machakos Tigania Meru
Yatta Machakos Nithi Meru
Kibwezi Machakos Tharaka Meru
Kilome Machakos Kitui Central Kitui
Makueni Machakos Kitui North Kitui
Laisamis Marsabit Kitui West Kitui
Moyale Marsabit Mutito Kitui
North Horr Marsabit Mutomo Kitui
Saku Marsabit Gachoka Embu
Isiolo North Isiolo Runyenjes Embu
Isiolo South Isiolo Siakago Embu

 Totals: 32 Constituencies, 6 Districts

 

Table 3.4 Nairobi Province

  

Constituency
District
Dagoretti Nairobi
Embakasi Nairobi
Kamukunji Nairobi
Lang'ata Nairobi
Makadara Nairobi
Mathare Nairobi
Parklands Nairobi
Starehe Nairobi

 Totals: 8 Constituencies, 1 District

 

Table 3.5 North-Eastern Province

 

Constituency
District
Dujis Garissa
Fafi Garissa
Ijara Garissa
Lagdera Garissa
Mandera Central Mandera
Mandera East Mandera
Mandera West Mandera
Wajir East Wajir
Wajir South Wajir
Wajir West Wajir

 Totals: 10 Constituencies, 3 Districts

 

Table 3.6 Nyanza Province

 

Constituency
District
Constituency
District

Bobasi

Kisii

Karachuonyo

South Nyanza

Bomachoge

Kisii

Kasipul-Kabondo

South Nyanza

Bonchari

Kisii

Mbita

South Nyanza

Kitutu Chache

Kisii

Ndhiwa

South Nyanza

Nyaribari Chache

Kisii

Rangwe

South Nyanza

Nyaribari Masaba

Kisii

Kuria

South Nyanza

Kitutu Masaba

Kisii

Migori

South Nyanza

North Mugirango/Borabu

Kisii

Nyatike

South Nyanza

South Mugirango

Kisii

Rongo

South Nyanza

West Mugirango

Kisii

Alego

Siaya

Kisumu Rural

Kisumu

Bondo

Siaya

Kisumu Town

Kisumu

Gem

Siaya

Muhoroni

Kisumu

Rarieda

Siaya

Nyakach

Kisumu

Ugenya

Siaya

Nyando

Kisumu

   

 Totals: 29 Constituencies, 4 Districts

 

Table 3.7 Rift-Valley Province

 

Constituency
District
Constituency
District
Baringo Central Baringo Bomet Kericho
Baringo East Baringo Buret Kericho
Baringo North Baringo Chepalungu Kericho
Baringo South Baringo Konoin Kericho
Keiyo Central Elgeyo-Marakwet Belgut Kericho
Keiyo North Elgeyo-Marakwet Kipkelion Kericho
Keiyo South Elgeyo-Marakwet Molo Nakuru
Keiyo West Elgeyo-Marakwet Nakuru East Nakuru
Kajiado Central Kajiado Nakuru North Nakuru
Kajiado North Kajiado Nakuru Town Nakuru
Kajiado South Kajiado Rongai Nakuru

 

Constituency
District
Constituency
District
Laikipia West Laikipia Samburu East Samburu
Lakipia East Laikipia Samburu West Samburu
Aldai Nandi Turkana Central Turkana
Mosop Nandi Turkana North Turkana
Tinderet Nandi Turkana South Turkana
Narok North Narok Eldoret East Uasin Gishu
Narok South Narok Eldoret North Uasin Gishu
Narok West Narok Eldoret South Uasin Gishu
Cherangani Trans-Nzoia Kacheliba West Pokot
Kwanza Trans-Nzoia Kapenguria West Pokot
Saboti Trans-Nzoia Sigor West Pokot

 Totals: 44 Constituencies, 13 Districts

 

Table 3.8 Western Province

 

Constituency
District
Constituency
District
Kanduyi Bungoma Butere Kakamega
Kimilili Bungoma Ikolomani Kakamega
Mt Elgon Bungoma Lugari Kakamega
Sirisia Bungoma Lurambi Kakamega
Webuye Bungoma Malava Kakamega
Amagoro Busia Mumias Kakamega
Bunyala Busia Shinyalu Kakamega
Nambale Busia Emuhaya Kakamega
Samia Busia Hamisi Kakamega
    Sabatia Kakamega
    Vihiga Kakamega

 Totals: 20 Constituencies, 3 Districts

 


 

Constituencies created for the 1997 Elections

 

Once again in 1996 Parliament amended the Constitution via the Constitution of Kenya (Amendment) Act of 1990 to provide for a minimum of 188 and a maximum of 210 Constituencies. Excerpts from Article 42 of the then Constitution:

42. (2) Parliament may prescribe the minimum number of constituencies into which Kenya shall be divided (which shall not be less than 188) or the maximum number of constituencies (which shall exceed the minimum number by at least twenty), and until Parliament has so prescribed the minimum number of constituencies shall be 188 and the maximum shall be 210.

The ECK in turn created an additional 22 geographic constituencies for the 1997 elections. By this time, the number of Districts had risen to xx This Constitution provided for twelve nominated members nominated by political parties according to their strength in the National Assembly.

33. (1) Subject to this section, there shall be twelve nominated members of the National Assembly appointed by the President following a general election, to represent special interests.

Better still, the nominations were required to take into account gender equality. Excerpts from Article 33:

33. (3) The persons to be appointed shall be nominated by the parliamentary parties according to the proportion of every parliamentary party in the National Assembly, taking into account the principle of gender equality.

We can therefore say that for the very first time women did receive, as a special interest group, due recognition and representation in the National Assembly. The tables following present the breakdown of representation at the 1997, 2002, and 2007 General Elections, listed once again, by Province.  For a better perspective we have also included additional data on the size of the electoral unit which has remained static since 1996, in the hope that the reader will appreciate the significance of the reforms on representation that were introduced by the New Constitution in 2010. The reader should also note that the population figures (and hence densities) given on these tables are based on the National Population Census conducted in 2009.

By 1996, the number of Districts had  risen to xxx. The official explanation given at the time emphasised on the urgent need to bring government services closer to the people of Kenya. The result of this decentralisation was the growth of a top-heavy provincial administration rather than the more desirable devolution of government and decision-making. 
 

Table 3.9 Central Province

 

Constituency
Area (sq. km.)
Population (2009)
Density (Persons/sq. km.)
District
Githunguri 175 147,763 843 Kiambu
Kiambaa 191 253,751 1,332 Kiambu
Kabete 236 265,829 1,124 Kiambu
Limuru 281 131,132 467 Kiambu
Lari 441 123,895 281 Kiambu
Kirinyaga Central 263 113,355 432 Kirinyaga
Ndia 270 99,515 369 Kirinyaga
Gichugu 405 124,672 308 Kirinyaga
Mwea 541 190,512 352 Kirinyaga
Kandara 237 156,663 661 Maragwa
Kigumo 293 123,766 422 Maragwa
Maragwa 468 152,272 326 Maragwa
Kangema 260 76,988 296 Murang'a
Mathioya 262 88,219 336 Murang'a
Kiharu 407 181,076 445 Murang'a
Kipipiri 544 95,338 175 Nyandarua
Kinangop 853 192,379 226 Nyandarua
Ndaragwa 934 92,626 99 Nyandarua
Ol-Kalou 974 215,925 222 Nyandarua
Nyeri Town 168 119,273 710 Nyeri
Mukurwe-ini 180 83,932 466 Nyeri
Tetu 418 78,320 187 Nyeri
Mathira 434 148,847 343 Nyeri
Othaya 600 87,374 146 Nyeri
Kieni 1,556 175,812 113 Nyeri
Gatundu South 192 114,180 594 Thika
Gatundu North 289 100,611 348 Thika
Juja 747 486,121 651 Thika
Gatanga 603 163,597 271 Thika

 

Table 3.10 Coast Province

 

Constituency
Area (sq. km.)
Population (2009)
Density (Persons/sq. km.)
District
Kaloleni 909 252,924 278 Kilifi
Bahari 968 323,609 334 Kilifi
Ganze 2,902 132,688 46 Kilifi
Matuga 1,052 151,978 144 Kwale
Msambweni 3,235 288,393 89 Kwale
Kinango 4,008 209,560 52 Kwale
Lamu East 1,663 18,841 11 Lamu
Lamu West 4,504 82,698 18 Lamu
Magarini 2,417 151,159 63 Malindi
Malindi 5,334 249,355 47 Malindi
Mvita 7 74,735 10,831 Mombasa
Likoni 53 176,426 3,304 Mombasa
Changamwe 57 282,279 4,987 Mombasa
Kisauni 113 405,930 3,602 Mombasa
Wundanyi 702 56,021 80 Taita/Tavetta
Mwatate 1,873 71,513 38 Taita/Tavetta
Taveta 4,205 67,665 16 Taita/Tavetta
Voi 10,348 89,458 9 Taita/Tavetta
Galole 9,657 60,866 6 Tana River
Bura 12,796 82,545 6 Tana River
Garsen 16,013 96,664 6 Tana River

 

Table 3.11 Eastern Province

 

Constituency
Area (sq. km.)
Population (2009)
Density (Persons/sq. km.)
District
South Imenti 737 179,604 244 Central Meru
Central Imenti 761 141,768 186 Central Meru
North Imenti 1,484 258,947 174 Central Meru
Manyatta 299 154,632 518 Embu
Runyenjes 430 142,360 331 Embu
Isiolo South 9,817 43,118 4 Isiolo
Isiolo North 15,881 100,176 6 Isiolo
Kitui Central 979 175,633 179 Kitui
Kitui West 1,843 159,367 86 Kitui
Mutito 5,037 126,711 25 Kitui
Kitui South 12,544 166,050 13 Kitui
Kangundo 813 219,103 269 Machakos
Machakos Town 822 199,211 242 Machakos
Mwala 1,015 163,032 161 Machakos
Yatta 1,059 147,579 139 Machakos
Kathiani 1,163 243,719 210 Machakos
Masinga 1,411 125,940 89 Machakos
Kaiti 418 120,116 287 Makueni
Kilome 630 87,864 139 Makueni
Mbooni 951 184,624 194 Makueni
Makueni 2,011 243,219 121 Makueni
Kibwezi 3,955 248,704 63 Makueni
Saku 2,078 46,502 22 Marsabit
Laisamis 20,266 65,669 3 Marsabit
North Horr 38,953 75,196 2 Marsabit
Siakago 777 89,035 115 Mbeere
Gachoka 1,315 130,185 99 Mbeere
Moyale 9,390 103,799 11 Moyale
Mwingi South 4,258 180,016 42 Mwingi
Mwingi North 5,773 204,932 35 Mwingi
Tigania West 402 135,980 338 North Meru
Tigania East 723 157,246 217 North Meru
Igembe North 1,327 229,871 173 North Meru
Igembe South 1,489 252,885 170 North Meru
Nithi 1,093 235,232 215 South Meru
Tharaka 1,570 130,098 83 Tharaka

 

Table 3.12 Nairobi Province

 

Constituency
Area (sq. km.)
Population (2009)
Density (Persons/sq. km.)
District
Starehe 11 274,607 2,532 Nairobi
Kamukunji 12 261,855 1,590 Nairobi
Makadara 20 218,641 10,878 Nairobi
Dagoretti 39 329,577 6,133 Nairobi
Kasarani 86 525,624 22,381 Nairobi
Westlands 98 247,102 8,516 Nairobi
Embakasi 208 925,775 25,906 Nairobi
Langata 223 355,188 4,444 Nairobi

Nairobi would later be split into 5 Districts of Westlands, Nairobi East, Nairobi ............

 

Table 3.13 North-Eastern Province

 

Constituency
Area (sq. km)
Population (2009)
Density (Persons/sq. km.)
District
Dujis 5,688 190,062 33 Garissa
Ijara 9,994 92,663 9 Garissa
Lagdera 13,297 245,123 18 Garissa
Fafi 15,974 95,212 6 Garissa
Mandera East 6,195 288,687 47 Mandera
Mandera West 8,631 319,775 37 Mandera
Mandera Central 11,648 417,294 36 Mandera
Wajir North 9,493 135,505 14 Wajir
Wajir West 12,800 171,948 13 Wajir
Wajir East 12,979 224,418 17 Wajir
Wajir South 21,424 130,070 6 Wajir

 

Table 3.14 Nyanza Province

Constituency
Area (sq. km.)
Population (2009)
Density (Persons/sq. km.)
District
Rarieda 400 134,558 337 Bondo
Bondo 587 157,522 268 Bondo
Bomachoge 221 200,729 907 Gucha
Bobasi 239 190,074 794 Gucha
South Mugirango 200 159,049 794 Gucha
Rangwe 451 194,408 431 Homa Bay
Ndhiwa 709 172,212 243 Homa Bay
Bonchari 126 114,615 907 Kisii
Nyaribari Chache 132 142,389 1,076 Kisii
Nyaribari Masaba 162 122,070 756 Kisii
Kitutu Chache 229 223,356 977 Kisii
Kisumu Town West 144 139,933 972 Kisumu
Kisumu Town East 146 264,227 1,810 Kisumu
Kisumu Rural 361 144,907 402 Kisumu
Kuria 581 256,086 441 Kuria
Uriri 380 115,751 304 Migori
Rongo 468 209,460 447 Migori
Migori 481 191,248 398 Migori
Nyatike 676 144,625 214 Migori
West Mugirango 180 159,673 887 Nyamira
Kitutu Masaba 253 199,136 788 Nyamira
North Mugirango Borabu 464 239,443 517 Nyamira
Nyakach 359 133,041 371 Nyando
Nyando 412 141,037 342 Nyando
Muhoroni 666 145,764 219 Nyando
Karachuonyo 438 162,045 370 Rachuonyo
Kasipul Kabondo 507 220,666 435 Rachuonyo
Gem 403 160,675 399 Siaya
Ugenya 518 202,306 390 Siaya
Alego 599 187,243 313 Siaya
Mbita 416 111,409 268 Suba
Gwasi 640 103,054 161 Suba

 

Table 3.15 Rift-Valley Province

 

Constituency
Area (sq. km.)
Population (2009)
Density (Persons/sq. km.)
District
Baringo North 1,695 93,789 55 Baringo
Baringo Central 2,426 162,351 67 Baringo
Baringo East 4,525 133,189 29 Baringo
Bomet 514 233,271 454 Bomet
Chepalungu 537 163,833 305 Bomet
Sotik 555 187,968 4,444 Bomet
Buret 320 167,649 524 Bureti
Konoin 414 139,114 336 Bureti
Kajiado South 6,356 137,496 22 Kajiado
Kajiado North 7,405 387,538 52 Kajiado
Kajiado Central 8,142 162,278 20 Kajiado
Keiyo North 541 73,715 136 Keiyo
Keiyo South 898 109,160 122 Keiyo
Ainamoi 520 181,509 349 Kericho
Belgut 560 202,591 362 Kericho
Kipkelion 1,103 206,590 187 Kericho
Eldama Ravine 942 105,273 112 Koibatek
Mogotio 1,364 60,959 45 Koibatek
Laikipia East 4,460 174,796 39 Laikipia
Laikipia West 4,769 224,431 47 Laikipia
Marakwet East 783 78,749 101 Marakwet
Marakwet West 805 108,374 135 Marakwet
Nakuru Town 263 309,424 1,179 Nakuru
Subukia 570 211,691 371 Nakuru
Molo 1,198 302,618 253 Nakuru
Rongai 1,222 163,864 134 Nakuru
Kuresoi 1,596 239,485 150 Nakuru
Naivasha 2,837 376,243 133 Nakuru
Aldai 524 157,967 301 Nandi
Emgwen 702 231,054 329 Nandi
Mosop 736 164,430 223 Nandi
Tinderet 938 199,514 213 Nandi
Narok North 4,654 258,544 56 Narok
Narok South 10,444 317,844 30 Narok
Samburu East 10,142 59,094 6 Samburu
Samburu West 10,985 164,853 15 Samburu
Cherangany 627 195,173 311 Trans Nzoia
Saboti 741 387,366 523 Trans Nzoia
Kwanza 1,119 236,218 211 Trans Nzoia
Kilgoris 2,846 274,532 96 Transmara
Turkana Central 14,766 254,606 17 Turkana
Turkana South 18,622 226,379 12 Turkana
Turkana North 35,000 374,414 11 Turkana
Eldoret South 989 261,073 264 Uasin Gishu
Eldoret North 1,088 391,655 360 Uasin Gishu
Eldoret East 1,251 241,451 193 Uasin Gishu
Kapenguria 2,306 181,063 79 West Pokot
Sigor 2,902 175,616 61 West Pokot
Kacheliba 3,856 156,011 40 West Pokot

 

 

Table 3.16 Western Province

 

Constituency
Area (sq. km.)
Population (2009)
Density (Persons/sq. km.)
District

Kanduyi

319

229,701

720

Bungoma

Bumula

345

178,897

519

Bungoma

Webuye

401

230,253

574

Bungoma

Sirisia

447

243,535

545

Bungoma

Kimilili

556

320,300

576

Bungoma

Budalangi

187

66,723

358

Busia

Butula

245

121,870

497

Busia

Funyula

264

93,500

354

Busia

Nambale

428

205,982

481

Busia

Khwisero

143

102,635

716

Butere-Mumias

Butere

210

139,780

666

Butere-Mumias

Matungu

260

146,563

564

Butere-Mumias

Mumias

326

212,818

652

Butere-Mumias

Ikolomani

143

104,669

732

Kakamega

Shinyalu

410

159,475

389

Kakamega

Lurambi

417

297,394

713

Kakamega

Malava

424

205,166

484

Lugari

Lugari

670

292,151

436

Lugari

Mt. Elgon

944

172,377

183

Mt. Elgon

Amagoro

559

255,871

458

Teso

Vihiga

90

91,616

1,018

Vihiga

Sabatia

110

129,678

1,179

Vihiga

Emuhaya

173

185,069

1,070

Vihiga

Hamisi

189

148,259

784

Vihiga

 

The total number of geographical Constituencies remained the same in the both the 2002 and the 2007 elections, at 210 constituencies with 12 nominated members.

 


 

 

References:

1. The Constitution of Kenya, aka Kenya Subsidiary Legislation, 1963. Government of Kenya.

2. Constitution of Kenya, 2010. National Council for Law Reporting. The Attorney General.

3. Fox, R (1996). "Bleak future for 1997 Multi-Party Elections in Kenya."

4. Proctor, J H (1965). "The Role of the Senate in the Kenya Political System", Institute for Development Studies, University College, Nairobi.

5. IEBC, 2012. "Revised Preliminary Report_Vol 1 09_02_2012. www.iebc.or.ke.

6. Kihoro, W (2007). "Politics and Parliamentarians in Kenya 1944 - 2007, Center for Multiparty Democracy". CMD-Kenya.

7. Maxon, Robert (2009). Constitution-Making in Contemporary Kenya: Lessons from the Twentieth Century. Kenya Studies Review: 1, 1, 11-30.

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